ARTs (14)

Check out the Zenodo ART Collection for the latest published ARTs. Below, we provide a concise list of papers published in the ART repository. You can also find works-in-progress ARTs in our WIP page.

Updated: 2024-07-19 02:21:54

Heterogeneous Paxos 2.0: the Specs
Latest update: June 27, 2024
Heterogeneous Paxos, distributed algorithm, consensus, Learner Graph

Heterogeneous Paxos 2.0: the Specs

Karbyshev, Aleksandr and Sheff, Isaac

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-12572558

10.5281/zenodo.12572558 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.12572557 )

Abstract: We introduce Heterogeneous Paxos 2.0, a modified version of Heterogeneous Paxos. Similar to the original, our assumptions and guarantees remain consistent; however, our new version simplifies the algorithm logic, reduces bandwidth usage, and enables a more efficient implementation....

Keywords: Heterogeneous Paxos, distributed algorithm, consensus, Learner Graph

Download sources: record/12572558/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2024-heterogeneous-paxos-20-specs,
    author    = { Karbyshev, Aleksandr and Sheff, Isaac },
    title     = { {Heterogeneous Paxos 2.0: the Specs} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Jun },
    year      = { 2024 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { June 27, 2024 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.12572558 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.12572557 }
}

Heterogeneous Narwhal and Paxos
Latest update: June 27, 2024
heterogeneous protocols, typhon, interoperability, protocol integration, consensus, cross-chain, heterogeneous trust

Heterogeneous Narwhal and Paxos

Heindel, Tobias and Karbyshev, Aleksandr and Sheff, Isaac

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-10498999

10.5281/zenodo.10498999 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.10498998 )

Abstract: Blockchain interoperability often requires a mutually trusted layer (in the case of roll-ups or side-chains), or a third party (in the case of bridges). Heterogeneous Consensus protocols introduced the possibility for more direct, decentralized interoperability: chains can commit transactions together, given "enough" overlap in their trust assumptions. Like a bridge, such protocols ensure atomicity under specific trust conditions. Unlike a bridge, chains never relinquish control over the safety or liveness of their data. However, consensus is only part of the story: efficient mempool architectures like Narwhal can dramatically improve scalability and increase chain throughput. However, these mempools also rely on the chain's underlying trust assumptions. We generalize Narwhal for a Heterogeneous Trust model, and explain how to use it with Heterogeneous Paxos to commit cross-chain atomic transactions....

Keywords: heterogeneous protocols, typhon, interoperability, protocol integration, consensus, cross-chain, heterogeneous trust

Download sources: record/10498999/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2024-heterogeneous-narwhal-paxos,
    author    = { Heindel, Tobias and Karbyshev, Aleksandr and Sheff, Isaac },
    title     = { {Heterogeneous Narwhal and Paxos} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Jun },
    year      = { 2024 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { June 27, 2024 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.10498999 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10498998 }
}

Cross-Chain Integrity with Controller Labels and Endorsement
Latest update: June 25, 2024
controllers, distributed systems, network management, system architecture

Cross-Chain Integrity with Controller Labels and Endorsement

Isaac, Sheff

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-10498997

10.5281/zenodo.10498997 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.10498996 )

Abstract: In distributed systems, mutable digital objects typically require some state machine to decide on their definitive current state. This state machine can be replicated to enhance availability and fault tolerance. We call the authoritative state machine of a digital object its controller. Typical examples of controllers defining objects include a database storing a record or a blockchain storing the current state of a smart contract. Without some kind of controller, different parties may have contradictory notions of what the state is and no way to reconcile them. In a distributed system, some controllers may be Byzantine, and make duplicitous or incoherent statements about the state. Here we design rules and procedures for a multi-state-machine ecosystem featuring digital objects or resources, with application-defined state-dependent rules for how they can be updated. Each controller can express an authoritative state, including authoritative resource...

Keywords: controllers, distributed systems, network management, system architecture

Download sources: record/10498997/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2024-crosschain-integrity-controller-labels,
    author    = { Isaac, Sheff },
    title     = { {Cross-Chain Integrity with Controller Labels and Endorsement} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Jun },
    year      = { 2024 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { June 25, 2024 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.10498997 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10498996 }
}

Anoma Resource Machine Specification
Latest update: June 25, 2024
anoma, blockchain technology, protocol design, resource machine

Anoma Resource Machine Specification

Khalniyazova, Yulia and Goes, Christopher

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-10689620

10.5281/zenodo.10689620 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.10498990 )

Abstract: The article explores the Anoma Resource Machine (ARM) within the Anoma protocol, providing a comprehensive understanding of its role in facilitating state updates based on user preferences. Drawing parallels with the Ethereum Virtual Machine, the ARM introduces a flexible transaction model, diverging from traditional account and UTXO models. Key properties such as atomic state transitions, information flow control, account abstraction, and an intent-centric architecture contribute to the ARM's robustness and versatility. Inspired by the Zcash protocol, the ARM leverages commitment accumulators to ensure transaction privacy. The article outlines essential building blocks, computable components, and requirements for constructing the ARM, highlighting its unique approach to resource-based state management....

Keywords: anoma, blockchain technology, protocol design, resource machine

ART Repository: https://github.com/anoma/ART-2024-Khalniyazova-Goes-Resource-Machine-Specification

Download sources: record/10689620/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2024-anoma-resource-machine-specification,
    author    = { Khalniyazova, Yulia and Goes, Christopher },
    title     = { {Anoma Resource Machine Specification} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Jun },
    year      = { 2024 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { June 25, 2024 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.10689620 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10498990 }
}

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Compiling to ZKVMs
Latest update: April 19, 2024
zero-knowledge proofs, zkVM, virtual machines, privacy-preserving computation

Compiling to ZKVMs

Centelles, Alberto

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-10998758

10.5281/zenodo.10998758 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.10498994 )

Abstract: With the advent of non-uniform folding schemes, the lookup singularity, generalised arithmetisations such as CCS and the application of towers of binary fields to SNARKs, many of the existing assumptions on SNARKs have been put into question, and the design space of zkVMs has opened. Although zkVMs provide a friendly developer experience, their proving time is still significantly (around a million times) slower than direct compilation to circuits due to the overhead of their abstractions (stack, memory, execution unit, etc). One of the causes of their poor performance is that existing zkVMs are still program agnostic; their provers haven't leveraged the structure of a program. Compilers have a long history of optimising computations by identifying patterns in their structure. We take advantage of the fact that a program is generally executed before it is proven, so the prover of a...

Keywords: zero-knowledge proofs, zkVM, virtual machines, privacy-preserving computation

Download sources: record/10998758/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2024-compiling-zkvms,
    author    = { Centelles, Alberto },
    title     = { {Compiling to ZKVMs} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Apr },
    year      = { 2024 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { April 19, 2024 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.10998758 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10498994 }
}

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Intent Machines
Latest update: February 21, 2024
intent machine, user intentions, automation, machine learning

Intent Machines

Hart, Anthony and Reusche, D

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-10654543

10.5281/zenodo.10654543 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.10498992 )

Abstract: This paper serves as an overview of the abstract mathematical structures that may be used to formalize intents and the machines that process them. We will give a hierarchy of progressively more specific structures with the goal of capturing the concept of an abstract intent machine at different levels of abstraction, and use these insights to understand different methods for composing/combining/coordinating these machines....

Keywords: intent machine, user intentions, automation, machine learning

Download sources: record/10654543/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2024-intent-machines,
    author    = { Hart, Anthony and Reusche, D },
    title     = { {Intent Machines} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Feb },
    year      = { 2024 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { February 21, 2024 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.10654543 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10498992 }
}

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VampIR Bestiary
Latest update: November 13, 2023
VAMP-IR, Intermediate Representations, Three-address code (3AC), Rank-1 Constraint System (R1CS), AirScript

VampIR Bestiary

Fitzgerald, Joshua and Centelles, Alberto

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-10118865

10.5281/zenodo.10118865 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.10118864 )

Abstract: This report delves into the comprehensive study of VAMP-IR Modules, detailing their transformations and comparisons. It explores specific aspects such as definitions, expressions, constraints, auxiliary data, and related algorithms. A thorough examination of IRs and their roles in Vamp-IR is conducted, complete with trade-offs and discussions on IRs resembling a proof system. The document illustrates the relationship among the presented IRs through diagrams, alongside an ideal pipeline. Existing and potential Vamp-IRs like Initial IR, Three-address code (3AC), Evaluated, Eliminated, Partially Evaluated and Partially Flattened (PEPF), Plonkish, R1CS, and AirScript are also discussed....

Keywords: VAMP-IR, Intermediate Representations, Three-address code (3AC), Rank-1 Constraint System (R1CS), AirScript

ART Repository: https://github.com/anoma/ART-2023-Fitzgerald-Centelles-VampIR-Bestiary

Download sources: record/10118865/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2023-vampir-bestiary,
    author    = { Fitzgerald, Joshua and Centelles, Alberto },
    title     = { {VampIR Bestiary} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Nov },
    year      = { 2023 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { November 13, 2023 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.10118865 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10118864 }
}

Constraint Satisfaction Problems: A Survey for Anoma
Latest update: October 18, 2023
Constraint Satisfaction, Intents, Formal Logic, Automated Reasoning, Surveys

Constraint Satisfaction Problems: A Survey for Anoma

Hart, Anthony

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-10019113

10.5281/zenodo.10019113 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.10019112 )

Abstract: This paper serves as a broad introduction to Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs) tailored for professionals working on Anoma, a decentralized financial framework. Our primary aim is to build a robust intuition for CSPs, preparing the Anoma community for its application in optimizing intents—defined as desires for future states of the financial system. We explore a wide array of CSP examples, including but not limited to Boolean Satisfiability and Integer Linear Programming, to equip readers with a general understanding of the field. We also include an overview of CSP tractability, aiming to give the reader an understanding of the limitations of solvability. A unique emphasis is placed on compositional methods, facilitating distributed problem-solving across multiple agents. Towards the end, we formalize the notion of 'intents' within the framework of Constraint Optimization....

Keywords: Constraint Satisfaction, Intents, Formal Logic, Automated Reasoning, Surveys

ART Repository: https://github.com/anoma/ART-2023-Hart-CPS-Anoma

Download sources: record/10019113/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2023-constraint-satisfaction-problems-survey,
    author    = { Hart, Anthony },
    title     = { {Constraint Satisfaction Problems: A Survey for Anoma} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Oct },
    year      = { 2023 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { October 18, 2023 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.10019113 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10019112 }
}

Exploring Cryptographic Approaches to Enhance Privacy in Intent Solving
Latest update: October 02, 2023
Collaborative SNARKs, Functional encryption, Homomorphic encryption, Intents, Multiparty computation, Searchable encryption, Private solving, Trusted execution environment, Witness encryption

Exploring Cryptographic Approaches to Enhance Privacy in Intent Solving

Khalniyazova, Yulia

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-8321167

10.5281/zenodo.8321167 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.8321166 )

Abstract: This report explores cryptographic strategies that could enhance privacy while solving intents in Anoma. We consider well-known solutions like trusted execution environment, multiparty computations and homomorphic encryption and more exotic primitives like functional encryption, witness encryption, searchable encryption and collaborative SNARKs. We identify the limiting factors for each primitive and provide a summary of the results....

Keywords: Collaborative SNARKs, Functional encryption, Homomorphic encryption, Intents, Multiparty computation, Searchable encryption, Private solving, Trusted execution environment, Witness encryption

ART Repository: https://github.com/anoma/ART-2023-Khalniyazova-Crypto-Approaches-to-Enhance-Privacy-in-Intent-Solving

Download sources: record/8321167/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2023-exploring-cryptographic-approaches-enhance,
    author    = { Khalniyazova, Yulia },
    title     = { {Exploring Cryptographic Approaches to Enhance Privacy in Intent Solving} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Oct },
    year      = { 2023 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { October 02, 2023 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.8321167 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8321166 }
}

The Core language of Juvix
Latest update: August 29, 2023
Juvix, Functional programming, Compilers, Language specification, Lambda Calculus

The Core language of Juvix

Lukasz Czajka

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-8268850

10.5281/zenodo.8268850 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.8268849 )

Abstract: We describe JuvixCore -- a minimalistic intermediate functional language to which Juvix desugars. We specify precisely and abstractly JuvixCore syntax, evaluation semantics, and the current optional type system. We comment on the relationship between this specification and the actual implementation. We also explain the role JuvixCore plays in the Juvix compilation pipeline. Finally, we compare the language features available in JuvixCore with those in Juvix and other popular functional languages....

Keywords: Juvix, Functional programming, Compilers, Language specification, Lambda Calculus

ART Repository: https://github.com/anoma/ART-2023-Czajka-The-Core-language-of-Juvix

Download sources: record/8268850/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2023-core-language-juvix,
    author    = { Lukasz Czajka },
    title     = { {The Core language of Juvix} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Aug },
    year      = { 2023 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { August 29, 2023 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.8268850 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8268849 }
}

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Rethinking VampIR
Latest update: August 29, 2023
VampIR, Arithmetic Circuits, Compilers, Proposals

Rethinking VampIR

Anthony Hart

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-8262815

10.5281/zenodo.8262815 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.8262814 )

Abstract: This paper provides an overview of VampIR v0.1.3 and outlines potential modifications for future versions. Specifically, it contains proposals for streamlined versions of the fresh function and constraint generation, a proposal for removing the type system, and a short proposal for dealing with imports. It ends with an overview of implementation improvements made in light of the Haskell port....

Keywords: VampIR, Arithmetic Circuits, Compilers, Proposals

ART Repository: https://github.com/anoma/ART-2023-Hart-Rethinking-VampIR

Download sources: record/8262815/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2023-rethinking-vampir,
    author    = { Anthony Hart },
    title     = { {Rethinking VampIR} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Aug },
    year      = { 2023 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { August 29, 2023 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.8262815 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8262814 }
}

Anoma: a unified architecture for full-stack decentralised applications
Latest update: August 24, 2023
Anoma, Intent-Centricity and Homogeneous Architecture, Full-Stack Decentralised Applications, Counterparty Discovery, Programmable Settlement Architectures

Anoma: a unified architecture for full-stack decentralised applications

Christopher Goes and Awa Sun Yin and Adrian Brink

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-8279842

10.5281/zenodo.8279842 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.8279841 )

Abstract: Programmable settlement architectures do not enable counterparty discovery and solving, both of which are necessary to build the majority of interactive multi-party applications. The architectural constraints of programmable settlement result in contemporary application protocols that have at least one Web2 component, which becomes the centralisation point. We present Anoma, a unified architecture for full-stack decentralised applications. Anoma is designed following the principles of intent-centricity and homogeneous architecture / heterogeneous security, together constituting a declarative paradigm for building decentralised applications. In this paper, we first outline the Anoma architecture, provide an intuition for the design rationale, and describe how Anoma disentangles the choices of protocol and security. We then define the Anoma application programming model and enumerate several existing and novel decentralised applications that can be built using the novel primitives. Finally, we outline the current components used to instantiate Anoma...

Keywords: Anoma, Intent-Centricity and Homogeneous Architecture, Full-Stack Decentralised Applications, Counterparty Discovery, Programmable Settlement Architectures

ART Repository: https://github.com/anoma/ART-2023-Anoma-Whitepaper-Copy

Download sources: record/8279842/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2023-anoma-unified-architecture,
    author    = { Christopher Goes and Awa Sun Yin and Adrian Brink },
    title     = { {Anoma: a unified architecture for full-stack decentralised applications} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Aug },
    year      = { 2023 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { August 24, 2023 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.8279842 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8279841 }
}

Geb Pipeline
Latest update: August 21, 2023
Geb, Juvix, VampIR, compilers, category theory, semantics of PL, Lambda calculus, Arithmetic circuits

Geb Pipeline

Artem Gureev and Jonathan Prieto-Cubides

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-8262747

10.5281/zenodo.8262747 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.8262746 )

Abstract: At Heliax, we are developing a compiler stack to facilitate the creation of decentralized applications using high-level functional programming languages. This stack comprises a series of compilers that begin with Juvix and culminate in arithmetic circuits, represented via VampIR, an intermediate language for such circuits. This report highlights the Geb project, a component of this pipeline, and details the process of compiling JuvixCore into VampIR through the Geb compiler. To aid its adoption and implementation, we provide a categorical overview of the mathematical foundations of the Geb project and insights into its current Lisp-based implementation. The objective of this report is to guide future implementations and improvements of the Geb project....

Keywords: Geb, Juvix, VampIR, compilers, category theory, semantics of PL, Lambda calculus, Arithmetic circuits

ART Repository: https://github.com/anoma/ART-2023-Gureev-Cubides-Geb-Pipeline

Download sources: record/8262747/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2023-geb-pipeline,
    author    = { Artem Gureev and Jonathan Prieto-Cubides },
    title     = { {Geb Pipeline} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Aug },
    year      = { 2023 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { August 21, 2023 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.8262747 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8262746 }
}

Juvix to VampIR Pipeline
Latest update: August 14, 2023
juvix, vamp-ir, geb, compilation, normalisation, arithmetic circuits

Juvix to VampIR Pipeline

Lukasz Czajka

https://art.anoma.net/list#paper-8252903

10.5281/zenodo.8252903 (use this DOI to cite this version) (for all versions: 10.5281/zenodo.8246535 )

Abstract: This report explores two alternatives to Geb for Juvix-to-VampIR compilation. The first alternative is a straightforward approach based on full normalisation, which may be implemented relatively quickly and used as a comparison baseline for all other approaches. The second alternative is based on a pipeline of several compiler transformations that together convert Juvix programs into a form that can be directly translated to VampIR input....

Keywords: juvix, vamp-ir, geb, compilation, normalisation, arithmetic circuits

ART Repository: https://github.com/anoma/ART-2023-Czajka-Juvix-VampIR-Pipeline

Download sources: record/8252903/files-archive.zip

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BiBTeX:

@article{ art-2023-juvix-vampir-pipeline,
    author    = { Lukasz Czajka },
    title     = { {Juvix to VampIR Pipeline} },
    journal   = { Anoma Research Topics },
    month     = { Aug },
    year      = { 2023 },
    publisher = { Zenodo },
    version   = { August 14, 2023 },
    doi       = { 10.5281/zenodo.8252903 },
    url       = { https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8246535 }
}

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